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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

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426                                   THE IRON INDUSTRY.
stones bear the names of many others almost if not quite equal to him in worthiness. It was the custom twenty .years ago, as it is today, to pick out as an idol one who could deliver a witty after-dinner speech. Nothing is. easier than to join a mutual admiration society and gradually have every member become in his own estimation more and more indispensable to the daily routine of the universe. American metallurgy has been developed by many minds, and these minds were not creators, but creatures; they were carried forward in the flood of "push," which is the predominant feature of our countrymen.
No spirit of rivalry has ever entered into European steel works. It is beyond question that many of the great advances that America has made have been due to vainglory and a simple desire to "beat all creation/' Another factor was the desire to increase outputs when the margin of profits justified the most lavish expenditure, and it is doubtful if in every case it was foreseen that these outlays would result in such a decrease in the operating cost per ton. In foreign countries this argument of beating- a competitor has no place. In one of the old works in Germany there are blast furnaces only 48 feet high, but as they show a fuel consumption of 1800 pounds of coke per ton of iron, the management sees no justification for starting on new construction. In our country we might keep such furnaces, but we would apologize for them; in Germany this sentiment is entirely unknown. Perhaps a little of the foreign spirit would be as valuable an acquisition for the American as a little American spirit is valuable for the European.
Each land has much to give to the other. Perhaps we can teach them how to work, but they can teach us how to save .up just a little of our surplus energy and use it in enjoying the fruits of labor..                       , ..
SEC. XXIb.—The question, of employer and employ ed.-^his is usually called the "labor question," and is spoken of in the same way that the consumption of fuel would be discussed, but although it may be convenient to treat it thus in books, it cannot be so handled in actual life. There are three distinct methods of arranging relations between the employer and the employed. The first is the paternal system, where the employer does everything for the workmen, as at Pullman in our own country, and at Creusot in Erance. This is probably the worst thing possible and' breeds1, a